Current Issue


Volume 34, Issue 1, 2020



Biochemistry


PRODUCTION AND PROPERTIES OF A NOVEL RAW STARCH HYDROLYZING Α-AMYLASE FROM BACILLUS AMYLOLIQUEFACIENS MDC1974
A. M. Paloyan, L. H. Melkonyan, A. S. Sargsyan, A. V. Mkhitaryan, K. G. Dyukova, A. A. Hambardzumyan

Pages 4-11

The α amylase producing strain was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis. After four stages of purification the enzyme isolated from culture supernatant of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MDC1974 strain had more than 95 % purity with 557 U/mg specific activity. The purified enzyme showed 55 kDa molecular weight by SDS-PAG electrophoresis and 5.0 pI by isoelectric focusing. The optimal pH and temperature for enzyme activity were 6.5-7.0 and 60 °C, respectively. The enzyme was stable at pH range of 6.5-8.0 and temperature range of 45-60 °C. Purified enzyme did not adsorb neither potato, nor corn raw starches, but hydrolyzed both of them. The corn starch was preferable substrate for enzyme. The enzyme hydrolyzed 1 % (w/v) raw or gelatinized corn starch significantly during 24 h. At the beginning of hydrolyzes reaction the oligosaccharides were the main products. After long periods of hydrolysis, the yield of glucose and maltose were predominant.


Botany


ON SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS OF CHENOPODIACEAE FAMILY IN THE FLORAS OF ARMENIA AND UZBEKISTAN
J. A. Akopian, A. G. Ghukasyan, H. F. Shomurodov, B. A. Adilov

Pages 12-17

The article contains results of comparative studies of Chenopodiaceae family of some medicinal plants in the flora of Armenia and Uzbekistan. Data on their medicinal value, use in official and folk medicine, as well as on habitats, ecology and distribution in the studied regions are given. Species are illustrated with maps and original photos.


STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE BASIC MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF POLLEN ON THE EXAMPLE OF SOME REPRESENTATIVES OF THE CHENOPODIACEAE VENT. FAMILY
H. H. Sonyan

Pages 18-21

An investigation of the data of morphological characteristics of pollen of Caroxylon Thunb., Kaviria Akhani et E.H. Roalson, Kali Mill. genera (Chenopodiaceae fam.) was carried out using the statistical analysis. The data obtained confirm that at the level of a light microscope the diameter of pollen grains, the number and diameter of pores for all representatives these three genera can be used as the most characteristic diagnostic features.

Chemistry


SYNTHESIS AND TRANSFORMATIONS OF 3-ALLYL-2-THIOXO-2,3-DIHYDRO-1H-SPIRO[BENZO[h]QUINAZOLINE-5,1'-CYCLOHEPTANE]-4(6H)-ONE
A. I. Markosyan, A. S. Ayvazyan, S. H. Gabrielyan, G. M. Makaryan, S. S. Mamyan

Pages 22-27

Synthesis method of 3-allyl-2-thioxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-spiro[benzo[h]quinazoline-5,1'-cycloheptane]-4(6H)-one was developed. The latter, in the presence of KOH was reacted with halides of various structures as a result of which 2-alkylthio-3-allyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-spirobenzo[h]quinazoline-5,1'-cycloheptane]-4(6H)-ones were obtained. The condensation of 3-allyl-2-thioxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-spiro[benzo[h]quinazoline-5,1'-cycloheptane-4(6H)-one with hydrazine hydrate leds to 2-hydrazinoderivative, which translated in propan-2-ylidene- and benzylidenehydrazones. The effect of the synthesized compounds on gram-positive (St. Aureus 209 p, Bacillus subtilis) and gram-negative (Sh. Dysenteriae Flexneri 6858, E. Coli-0.55) microbes were studied using the method of "diffusion in agar".


SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF (E)-2-STYRYL-3H-SPIRO[BENZO[h]QUINAZOLINE-5,1'-CYCLOHEXANE]-4(6H)-ONES
A.I. Markosyan, S. H. Gabrielyan, S. S. Mamyan, V. Z. Shirinyan, F. H. Arsenyan,J. A. Avakimyan, H. M. Stepanyan

Pages 28-33

The condensation of 4'-amino-1'H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,2'-naphthalene]-3'-carbonitrile with 3-chloro-3-oxopropanoate and subsequent cyclization of ethyl 3-{(3'-cyano-1'H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,2'-naphthalen]-4'-yl)amino}-3-oxopropanoate developed the synthesis method of ethyl 2-(4-oxo-4,6-dihydro-3H-spiro[benzo[h]quinazoline-5,1'-cyclohexane]-2-yl)acetate. It is revealed that, as a result of hydrolysis of ester, the formed acetic acid was exposed to spontaneous self- decarboxylation with formation 2-methyl-3H-spiro[benzo[h]quinazoline-5,1'-cyclohexane]-4(6H)-one.By hydrazinolysis of ethyl 3-{(3'-cyano-1'H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,2'-naphthalen]-4'-yl)amino}-3-oxopropanoate 2-(4-oxo-4,6-dihydro-3H-spiro[benzo[h]quinazoline-5,1'-cyclohexane]-2-yl)acetohydra-zide was obtained, which is a stable compound. Condensation of 2-methyl-3H-spiro[benzo[h]quinazoline-5,1'-cyclohexane]-4(6H)-one with aromatic aldehydes synthesized (E)-2-styryl-3H-spiro[benzo[h]quinazoline-5,1'-cyclohexane]-4(6H)-ones. Antitumor and antibacterial properties of synthesized compounds are studied.


Ecology


RADIOECOLOGICAL STUDIES IN ARMENIA: A REVIEW
O.A. Belyaeva, K.I. Pyuskyulyan, N.E. Movsisyan, L.V. Sahakyan, A.K. Saghatelyan

Pages 34-40

This review generalizes results of radioecological studies implemented in Armenia in a period from the 1960s till the early 2000s. Specificity of geographical position determines the maximum of global atmospheric radioactive fallout in high mountain regions of the country. Several facilities can potentially influence the radioecological situation of Armenia: the Armenian Nuclear Power Plant, a spent nuclear fuel repository and interim storage facility for radioactive waste. Runoff of many rivers of the basin of Araks and Kura (major water arteries of South Caucasus) originates on the territory of Armenia. The aforesaid peculiarities determine the key role of Armenia in transfer and distribution of radionuclides in the region.


MULTIFLORAL HONEY FROM ARTSAKH: QUALITY AND SAFETY
O. Belyaeva, K. Sargsyan, L. Hovhannisyan, L. Sahakyan

Pages 41-46

27 samples of multifloral honey were sampled from Artsakh in 2016 to determine the quality and safety parameters. 7 physicochemical characteristics of honey were determined applying harmonized standard methods of Codex Alimentarius. Chemical elements (macroelements: K, Na, Ca, Mg, As, and toxic elements: As, Pb, Cd, Hg) were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. GC/MS was used for determination of residues of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and Malathion. DDT, HCH, malathion and As were not detected in the studied honey. Hg was found in four samples, in one of which its content exceeded Maximal Residue Level by 1.9 times. Cd and Pb concentrations were low. Relatively high contents of macro elemenrs (K, Ca, Mg) were detected in money produced in Martakert and Hadrut regions. Honey produced in Artsakh meets the RA and EU requirements for honey quality by physicochemical characteristics with the exception of three samples.


ACCUMULATION REGULARITIES OF SOME HEAVY METALS IN MEDICINAL RAW MATERIAL OF CALLISIA FRAGRANS UNDER OPEN-AIR HYDROPONIC CONDITIONS
S.Kh.Mairapetyan, A.S. Karapetyan

Pages 47-50

Accumulation regularities of several the most toxic heavy metals in medicinal raw material of Callisia fragrans under open-air hydroponic and soil culture conditions of Ararat Valley were investigated for the first time. It turned out that regardless to the cultivation conditions the content of Pb, Cd, As and Hg does not exceed MAC.


A STATISTICAL COMPARISON BETWEEN THE PERFORMANCE OF ICP-OES AND XRF METHODS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF TRACE AMOUNT OF HG IN URBAN SOIL SAMPLES
G.A.Melkonyan

Pages 51-56

Vanadzor soil samples were analysed by 2 independent laboratories, each using a different spectroscopic technique: field-portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy (in Armenia) and distructive inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) (in Italy). Four certified reference materials were analyzed to provide accurate results obtained by using two methods with properly optimized parameters. Statistical analyses were performed to determine significant differences between the instrumental techniques, included Paired-T test for mean values comparison, Pearson’s correlation for determination of strength and direction of the association between the two techniques and Bland/Altman test for assessing the consistency of measurements. According to analyses, it has not been detected correlation between XRF and ICP-OES results, which means significant difference between two methods on P<0.05 level. However, according to XRF precision and accuracy assessment, XRF can be a reliable analytical method acceptable for screening issues and for characterization of pollution sites even in the case of Hg trace amount.


ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION STRATEGIES AND THEIR MANAGEMENT
D. Poghosyan

Pages 57-59

In the following article we have attempted to study a number of environmental protection/preservation/strategies and issues related to management from the perspective of current issues in the sphere. Some of the issues that are considered in this article are also represented in relation to sustainable development of the environmental issues. The following article is also intended to process the necessary solutions to environmental strategies and the issues raised in their management to promote economic development while maintaining ecological balance. The article also presents a number of projects having strategic importance for the protection of the environment, decisions to implement them and legal acts related to the topic.


Physical chemistry


SYNTHESIS OF CU-CONTAINING NANOCOMPOSITE POLYMER COATINGS BASED ON 1-VINYL-1,2,4-TRIAZOLE AND N-VINYLPYRROLIDONE
S.H. Sargsyan, K.S. Margaryan, I. G. Agajanyan, A.S. Sargsyan, A.H. Poghosyan, A.A. Shahinyan

Pages 60-65

Cu-containing nanocomposite coatings on pure iron and steel based on 1-vinyl-1,2,4-triazole and N-vinylpyrrolidone were synthesized using contact metal exchange method. The structure and composition of Cu-containing coatings were confirmed by IR spectroscopy, X-ray phase analysis, electron microscopy and elemental analysis.


Physiology


PSYCHO-EMOTIONAL STATE OF FEMALE STUDENTS DURING LESSONS AND EXAMS
I.A. Danielyan, H.L. Kostanyan, L.H. Misakyan, R.Sh. Sargsyan

Pages 66-70

It is shown the possibility of using the hardware complex "Bioscope" for the comparative assessment of the psycho-emotional state of students during lessons and exams. The findings suggest a promising use of the proposed methodology for the objective assessment of the level of psycho-emotional stress of students.


SINAPTIC PLASTICITY IN PALLIDO-NIGRAL PROJECTION ON ROTENONE MODEL OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE UNDER ACTION OF VENOM NOX
К.V. Karapetyan, М.V. Poghosyan, J.S. Sarkissian

Pages 71-75

On the 13 Albino rats in norm, on the model of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and on the same model with protection by Naja Naja Oxiana (NOX) venom the analysis of 422 neurons of substantia nigra соmpacta (SNc) single-unit activity under stimulation of globus pallidus (GP) has been conducted. The frequency of spikes in rotenone treated rats increased because of the excitotoxicity. Under the influence of NOX on the model of PD received a significant reduction the spike frequency of SNc neurons, which is obviously protective impact of venom NOX.


CHANGES IN THE RATS HIPPOCAMPUS AFTER ALCOHOL INTOXICATION AND UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF TAURINE
V. P. Khachatryan, M.H. Danielyan, D.O. Terzyan, O.H. Nazaryan, T.H. Ghevondyan, J. S. Sarkissian

Pages 76-81

The hippocampus has a selective sensitivity to acute and chronic alcohol intoxication. The aim of this work is to study the effect of the biologically active substance taurine on the cellular structures of the hippocampus after alcohol intoxication. Under the influence of ethanol, degenerative changes are noted in pyramidal cells with poorly pronounced processes, swelling of granular cells of the dentate gyrus subjected to chromatization, and also a decrease in the density of hippocampal neurons. In the conditions of long-term alcohol consumption, not only changes in the size and number of pyramidal neurons but also in the volume of the hippocampus and its regions are observed. In rats treated with taurine, there are positive changes in the structural properties of neurons and an increase in phosphatase activity (increased metabolism) in the hippocampus. The results indicate that the taurine has a neuroprotective effect on cellular structures in rat hippocampus.